Now our planting journey has begun. We provide an environment with suitable nutrients, air and light for plant growth, and increase yield through fertilization, pruning and slight damage.
The control of plant absorption of nutrients, whether it is soil culture, hydroponics or air culture, is the most basic and critical. It runs through the whole process of planting. Today we talk about soil control in soil culture.
What does soil provide for hemp growth?
When the plant starts to grow, the plant absorbs water and nutrients through the roots and transports it to all structural tissues through the stem. There are three ways for plants to absorb the outside world: ion exchange at the root surface cell, absorption at the root cell membrane, and capillary suction at the root. That is to absorb small molecules and free ions.
The main things that soil provides to plants are:
- Stable structural support. The soil will cover and fix the roots of the plants, leaving the roots in a dark, warm, humid and breathable environment, which can protect the roots of the plants from damage. This is also the root of the different cultivation methods. Soil cultivation uses soil to coat roots, hydroponics water, and air cultivation uses fine mist. The root is the most vulnerable part of a plant, and it is also the part we need to protect most.
- Various inorganic substances. These inorganic substances are soluble in water, or slightly soluble in water. After dissolution, they become ions and are absorbed by the roots. After they are directly absorbed by plants or re-synthesized, they become part of plants. This is the similarity of various cultivation methods, changing the soup without changing the medicine.
What nutrients does the soil have? What role do they play?
Nitrogen (N) is an essential element for plants to synthesize chlorophyll, as well as an essential element for protein. It is very important for the growth and development of plants in the early stage. The lack of nitrogen will make plants thin and yellow.
Phosphorus (P) stimulates early growth and promotes root development. Promote crop maturity and promote seed production. Phosphorus is one of the main initiators of photosynthesis, nutrient transport and energy movement through the energy-enriching bond (ATP). Phosphorus participates in the formation of all sugars and starches, and promotes early plant growth and a longer growth period. Phosphorus is the key to energy production and transportation. Sufficient phosphorus makes the flowers of plants fuller and fuller.
Potassium (K) promotes the strength and stability of crop stalks, improves drought tolerance, and disease resistance makes plant cells thicker. Potassium controls the opening and closing of stomata and prevents transpiration loss. Increase fruit swelling and improve fruit quality. Regulate water status and activate many enzymes to promote the formation of sugar, protein, starch and plant growth hormone. Sufficient and appropriate amount of potassium makes plants healthier.
Calcium (Ca) is a component of plant cell walls, and cell walls cannot be formed without Ca. The obvious manifestation of a lack of calcium is stickiness at the growth point of the plant, new leaves curling and deformity, and leaf edge necrosis.
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential component of chlorophyll, protein and fat. After a plant lacks magnesium, the veins of old leaves will turn yellow.
Sulfur (S) is an important participant in the synthesis of organic matter by plants. The lack of sulfur is first manifested in the relatively young tissues, and the leaves and veins turn from light green to yellow. This symptom of chlorosis looks similar to nitrogen deficiency, but because nitrogen is more mobile in plants, nitrogen deficiency is the first to show up on older leaves. When sulfur deficiency is seen, it may be difficult to completely restore the growth of certain crops by applying sulfur fertilizer.
It is difficult for us to determine the specific lack of elements. Therefore, we must first check from the soil to control the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to 12-12-12, 20-20-20 is the best.
Another point is that we need to control the pH of watering and the pH of the soil. PH refers to the concentration of free H ions in the water. The lower the pH, the greater the environment is alkaline, the higher the pH, the lower the environment is acidic. Changes in the content of various elements mentioned above will affect PH, and changes in PH will also affect the absorption of these elements by plants.
Therefore, we should first control the pH of the soil at 5-7, that is, light acid to neutral. We can use a pH test paper and a pH meter to measure the pH value, use lemon water to decrease the pH, and use a diluted solution of slaked lime water to increase the pH. There are also reagents that directly adjust pH on the market. Finally, according to the specific characteristics of the plant, select the appropriate element to add, that is, the nutrient solution. There are many kinds of nutrient solutions, mostly inorganic substances, and some organic substances. When choosing, please read the instructions. If you have any questions, please leave a message. We will talk to you in the next chapter about how we can save if the nutrient solution is overfilled or wrong.